Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease – What Is it?

It is very common to reach for painkillers such as aspirin to ease a headache or a fever, but if you suffer from a disorder known as aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) taking this medication could actually make you feel much worse. AERD can often be treated easily, it causes breathing issues and is triggered by sensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)


Things that can make you at risk of AERD include:

  • Smoking or being exposed to second-hand smoke as a child
  • AERD tends to be more common among people between the ages of 20-50
  • Having asthma can increase the risk
  • Nasal polyps


There is a range of respiratory issues that can occur for an AERD sufferer. These include:

  • Sinus problems and pain
  • Stuffy nose and nasal congestions
  • Headaches
  • Watery eyes
  • Sneezing
  • Nasal polyps
  • Asthma attack
  • Wheezing or coughing
  • Tightness of the chest
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal cramping
  • Nausea
  • Some people with AERD also find that alcohol can cause respiratory issues.


There is no blood test to confirm AERD but your doctor can diagnose you by checking your respiratory reactions and symptoms when taking NSAIDs. They can perform what is known as an ‘aspirin challenge’, this is when they watch you take aspirin and monitor your reaction to it. This test should be avoided if you are pregnant or have heart, liver or kidney disease.  It is increasingly the case that this test is administered within a specialist allergy or respiratory clinic in a hospital.


There are no known cures for AERD but there are ways of treating and managing it. You may be prescribed inhaled steroids to take daily, nasal steroid sprays or steroid sinus rinses. If you have nasal polyps, you can have surgery to remove or shrink them, although the chance of the polyps recurring if you have AERD is increased. Another possible treatment is aspirin desensitisation. This involves a doctor watching you take small doses of aspirin and increasing the dose over time. When you show a reaction, you will remain on that dose until you are able to manage it with ease. Then the process continues. This has proven to be successful in up to 90% of cases. However, the benefit of aspirin desensitisation continues only for as long as you continue to take the aspirin.




What Could It Mean If Your Child Is Snoring Loudly?

Most children will occasionally snore, and some will snore frequently. Light snoring that can barely be heard is rarely a cause for concern. If a child is consistently snoring loudly this could be an indication that they have a respiratory infection or an allergy. However, it could also be a sign of a more serious illness such as sleep apnoea.

Everyone is allowed to have a short gap or break in their breathing pattern at night, however If a child’s snoring also includes frequent or particularly long pauses or gasps (10 seconds is thought to be an acceptable upper limit), this could be a symptom of  sleep-disordered breathing, or obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). These pauses and gasps cause inconsistent breathing patterns for the child which in turn causes the child not to get the required amount of quality sleep meaning they will be overtired in the daytime. There are some known contributing factors to sleep apnoea, which include:

  • Asthma
  • Allergies
  • Enlarged or swollen tonsils and/or adenoids
  • Obesity
  • Reflux disorders
  • Face or jaw (craniofacial) physical abnormalities

So how can you know if your child is suffering from sleep apnoea? Well, there are a few signs that you can look out for. Obviously, snoring is the first symptom, so keep a note of your child’s snoring pattern and volume. This isn’t the only sign to watch out for though, if your child is frequently waking up during the night then they will likely be tired during the daytime. They could also be sleeping in unusual positions in order to make their breathing easier, or be particularly restless and fidgety. If your child’s behaviour and moods seem to change then keep an eye on these changes as it could also be linked to sleep patterns due to snoring and breathing issues. Finally, excessive or increasing sweating at night can indicate that your child is working harder than they should be to breathe comfortably.

To determine if your child does, in fact, have OSAS you will first need to be assessed by an ear, nose and throat (ENT) consultant or a paediatrician, or in some cases both specialists. It is possible that further tests may be required, such as blood tests, X-rays and/or an overnight sleep study at a hospital. Your GP or specialist can make the necessary referrals for this. The sleep study will record breathing patterns and the heart rate of your child and the results will provide the diagnosis and a treatment plan can be made.

There are a number of treatments available for OSAS. These are:

  • Medical treatments such as steroid drops or sprays or even antibiotics in some cases, following an ENT review
  • Nasal prongs to keep the airway open – occasionally required in young children or infants with syndromic or craniofacial problems.
  • CPAP – The child wears a mask while asleep which provides continuous air flow. This is usually only required in the most severe cases.
  • Surgery – one of the commonest causes of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep apnoea in children is having large tonsils and/or adenoids. Surgery to address these problems (adenotonsillectomy) is occasionally required and very often extremely effective.

If you are worried about your child snoring, you should make an appointment with your GP in the first instance to discuss the treatment options.

How To Ease Pressure in the Ears When You Are Unwell

It’s one of those annoying things that often goes hand in hand with illnesses such as the ‘flu, sinus issues or a cold, and it can make you feel even worse than you already do. Ear pressure can be particularly irritating but it is something that can be eased. It usually goes away by itself once the illness is over but there are ways that you can relieve ear pressure.

Why Do Your Ears React When You Are Sick?

When you are ill with a feeling of a congested or sore head, it is likely that your ears feel stuffy, blocked or tender. This is due to the fact that our ears, nose and throat are all connected so they tend to all suffer together.  We have two Eustachian tubes situated at the back of the nose, which connect directly with the idle part of the ear, so any pressure related issues in the nose or sinuses can be transmitted to the ears. This can occur during congestion caused by a cold or ‘flu, but also due to a change in atmospheric pressure such as occurs when flying or scuba diving.

What Can You Do To Relieve Ear Pressure?

More often than not, your ear pressure will go once your illness does, whether that be on its own like a cold or with medication for an infection. You can reduce the stuffiness and pressure in your ears by treating the congestion and swelling in the ears nose or throat that is causing the issue. This can be done by:

  • Nasal decongestants. This can be in the form of a spray or tablets such as Sudafed. The spray is particularly effective during an acute cold or ‘flu, although they should not be used for more than 5-7 days continuously. Always be sure to follow instructions for any medication.
  • Clearing your sinus by inhaling steam either on its own or with the addition of menthol / eucalyptus drops is usually very helpful and will also make you feel better.
  • Saline (salt water) nasal rinses – either a spray such as Sterimar or a more thorough rinsing system such as NeilMed Sinurinse are effective at clearing out excessive mucus from the nose, thereby helping to clear the Eustachian Tubes
  • An antihistamine may also be useful particularly if you suffer with allergies

A few simple things to try that may solve the issue quickly, particularly if it feels like your ears have “popped” are:

  • Yawning
  • Swallowing / Gulping
  • Suck on a cough sweet
  • Hold your nostrils closed and close your mouth, then gently breath out.
  • Chewing gum

Signs To Look Out For

If the pressure you have been feeling in your ear remains once the illness has passed or you experience pain, leaking fluid or hearing loss then it Is best to be seen by your GP or an ENT specialist as you may have an ear infection or other ear related condition that could require a different line of treatment or medication.

How The Nose Adapts To Smells

A recent study suggests that our noses could be capable of adapting themselves to efficiently inform the brain of the most typical smells in our surroundings. These new findings can help us to gain a better understanding of why and how our noses adapt to these smells, as well as why time and age can decrease the neurons in the nose making our sensitivity to smell weaker.

When molecules drift from items in our surroundings they trigger the receptor neurons in our nose. Mice have up to 10 million receptor neurons in their nose, which are separated into more than 1,000 types. Each type will respond in a different way depending on the molecules detected. Every smell can activate a number of different receptors and every receptor can be activated by a number of smells. So, to fully understand a smell, our brain must be capable of reading the coding of the receptor types and how they are activated.

It is suggested that receptor types are used differently depending on the smell they are exposed to, and that our nose can train itself to inform the brain efficiently as possible about the smells in particular surroundings. Tiberiu Tesileanu, a spokesperson for this recent study explains that the receptor types that are triggered by variable smells carry a lot of information to the brain about regarding this variability and are therefore more abundant in the nose. This appears to be the first time that such coding ideas have been used when looking at the use of these receptor neurons. Further work is needed to look at the types of smells that are typical of our surroundings and how they are detected by our receptor neurons and further experiments could be carried out and compared to help gain a greater understanding of how efficiently neurons carry information to our brains when a new smell is detected.

People who are suffering with a poor or absent sense of smell can help themselves by undertaking ‘smell training’. This is a more modern concept which aims to stimulate the olfactory (smell) neurons in the nose as well as central pathways and also by reactivating smell memories from the brain, with the objective of improving the appreciation of smell. It is a bit like going to the gym to train a muscle except this time it is to improve your sense of smell.

Please visit or for further information about the sense of smell and training.

Voice Changes And Hoarseness

Hoarseness is a word that describes a change in the voice. This change will differ from person to person. Usually the voice takes on a rough, raspy quality, although it can also show signs of weakness or a changed in volume. It may also have become higher or lower pitched or become more strained. Words often used to describe the voice changes include ‘creaky’, ‘rough’, ‘squeaky’, ‘raspy’ and ‘breathy’

Causes Of Hoarseness
There are a number of causes of hoarseness, most of which are not serious and improve quickly with help. Hoarseness is caused when something alters the vocal cords in our voice box (larynx). Some voice changes are normal and not cause for concern. Children’s voices will change as they grow up, especially boys during the puberty years. Elderly people tend to gradually lose the quality and strength of their voice, particularly after the age of 70. These are natural causes of hoarseness that can not be helped but do not pose a threat.
The most common medical cause of hoarseness is a cold or a virus. This could be your common cold which is an infection in the nose, throat and larynx or a virus such as influenza. When a virus causes swelling of the vocal folds in the larynx and changes our voice, It is known as laryngitis. People who over use their voice, repeatedly clear their throat or shout a lot are more at risk of laryngitis, including people who smoke and drink.
There are less common causes of voice hoarseness, such as damage to the throat, benign tumours, cancer, Parkinson’s disease or a stroke.

If the hoarseness is the result of a virus, this will not require antibiotics. Your GP may advise the following:

• Minimise use of the voice and use it quietly
• Quit smoking
• Keep hydrated, especially with water.
• Avoid caffeine and alcohol
• Use over the counter painkillers

If you experience any of the following, then your GP may feel there is a more serious reason for your voice hoarseness they may refer you to hospital.
• If you have not had a cold or virus
• If you are a heavy drinker or smoker
• If you have pain swollen or lumps in the neck / throat
• If the hoarseness persists for more than 3 weeks without improvement
In such situations, you will be referred to an ENT surgeon who will examine your larynx as well as undertake a general ENT examination. This is to rule out a structural problem with the larynx. If there any problems then they can be treated. This might involve speech therapy to strengthen the muscles of the voice box, or possibly surgery in some cases.

Acid Reflux And A Sore Throat

Acid reflux is a common condition which occurs when the acid in the stomach travels back up to the oesophagus (food pipe) and irritates its lining. If it reaches the throat, this can cause a dry cough, sore throat, bitter tastes, heartburn and indigestion. You may notice acid reflux after a big meal, while laying down or bending over or after eating something spicy.
Symptoms Of A Sore Throat From Acid Reflux Include:
• A persistent cough
• Food getting stuck in the throat
• Constantly needing to clear the throat
• Tightness in the throat or a feeling of something stuck
• Burning feeling in the mouth
• Voice becoming hoarse
• A bitter taste in the mouth
Usually the sufferer will need to make some life style changes to reduce cases of acid reflux and the complications that come with it, such as a sore throat. Avoiding the foods and activities that set it off is the first step to take. There are some medications that can help reduce stomach acid and relieve the symptoms associated with reflux. There are also some home remedies to try, these include:
• Eating little and often and avoiding larger meals particularly in the evening
• Keep to a healthy weight
• Do not smoke
• Avoid dairy where possible
• Do not wear tight clothing such as trousers
• Do not eat within three hours of bedtime
• Cut out alcohol, caffeine and carbonated drinks
• Avoid citric foods and drinks
• Cut out chocolate and mint
• Reduce stress where possible
If you suffer with acid reflux and a sore throat for a long time you may go on to experience complications such as narrowing of the esophagus or erosion of the tissues which can cause painful ulcers. Consult your doctor if you experience any of the following:
• Trouble breathing, swallowing or opening the mouth
• Pain in joints
• Earache
• A sore throat that last longer than a week
• A feeling of a lump in the throat
• A lump in the neck
• A rash
• A high temperature
• Blood in saliva
• Chest pain

Tonsillectomy For A Child – All You Need To Know

What Is A Tonsillectomy?

A Tonsillectomy is an operation in which the tonsils are taken out. If a child is having frequent cases of Tonsillitis (this is when the tonsils become infected) then they may require a Tonsillectomy to rectify it. Having this operation will stop your child from suffering from Tonsillitis and the pain, fever and discomfort that comes with it. There are some national guidelines that govern when and if your child might be suitable for a tonsillectomy. If your child has at least seven cases of Tonsillitis in a year, five each year for two years or three each year for three years then this procedure is likely to be the next step. This might come as some surprise to many parents as even one or two severe attacks per year can be quite debilitating  and in many cases surgery is recommended even if the official guidelines are not quite met. Tonsillitis might in some cases resolve by itself but this is not guaranteed. If Tonsillitis is left untreated, it can lead to further complications such as hospitalisation for intravenous antibiotics, severe breathing problems and the spread of infection to nearby structures such as deep tissue or neck abscesses.

What Does The Surgery Entail?

There are several ways to perform tonsillectomy from a surgical point of view. By whichever method, Tonsillectomy is performed under a general anaesthetic and takes around half an hour to complete. The operation will be performed through the child’s mouth. The tonsils will be cut away from the layer of muscle beneath it or heat may be used to remove them and cauterise the area. Any extra bleeding will be stopped.

Recovery And Complications

Usually you will be able to take your child home the day of the operation. The pain will last for up to two weeks and will feel more tender in the mornings. The pain can be quite severe and will get worse before it gets better. You will need to keep your child off school for the two-week recovery period. This will help to avoid infection while the throat is healing.

The common complications associated with a Tonsillectomy are pain, bleeding, infection in the wound and blood clots, ear pain, altered or reduced taste and dryness of the lips and gums. There is a very small chance of some regrowth of tonsil tissue in the future although this is quite unusual.

Are You A Teacher? You Are At Higher Risk Of Vocal Problems

It may come as no surprise to hear this if teaching is your chosen profession, but studies have shown that teachers are at a higher risk of vocal damage.

A teacher’s voice is their main tool in interacting with students, and is often used for prolonged periods of time, usually in noisy environments.

A study at the University of Malaga in Spain, focusing on 282 teachers, has revealed that 62.7% report having problems with their voice on a daily or weekly basis. This can lead to various problems, as the study also found teaching staff with vocal problems report less respect for their work and more insecurities in their duties.

Looking after your voice as a teacher is vital, and there are a few things you can do to prevent damage:

  • Rest your voice – Alternate the types of activities you do with your class to give your voice a rest every so often
  • Avoid Shouting When Possible – When you are competing with loud background noise or a large teaching area, you may have no choice but to raise your voice, but try to avoid shouting whenever you can as this puts extra strain on your vocals
  • Stop clearing your throat – Try swallowing hard or sipping water instead
  • Keep hydrated – 6-8 glasses of water a day can help keep your vocal chords moist. If they are irritated, try breathing in steam to soothe them
  • Breathe through your stomach and diaphragm – Shallow breathing from your upper chest can damage your voice. It is a good idea to practice slower breathing from your diaphragm, feeling your rib cage move in and out as you breathe. Concentrate on the tension you are releasing by breathing in this manner.

If you have had persistent voice/throat problems for more than a few weeks, it is advisable to seek out professional medical advice to rule out any underlying problems.

All You Need To Know About Glossitis

Glossitis is an inflammation of the tongue, causing swelling and changes in the tongue’s texture and colour.

Types Of Glossitis:

Acute glossitis – Develops fast with severe symptoms.

Chronic glossitis – Usually caused by an underlying condition.

Atrophic glossitis – The small bumps on the tongue, called papillae, shrink. This causes the tongue’s surface to look glossy.

Median rhomboid glossitis – Usually caused by a Candida yeast infection.



Pain and swelling in the tongue

Difficulty swallowing

Burning or itching

Change in the texture and colour of the surface of the tongue

Issues speaking or eating



Allergic reaction

Mouth injuries, such as cuts or burns

Dental braces

Diseases such as celiac disease, protein-calorie malnutrition, pernicious anaemia and Sjögren’s Syndrome.

Infections, either bacterial, viral or fungal

Nutritional deficiencies



If someone has symptoms of glossitis, they should see a dentist or a doctor. They will assess the person’s history and symptoms as well as examine their mouth and tongue thoroughly, noting any abnormalities, bumps or blisters on the tongue’s surface or on the gums. A saliva swab or blood test may also be taken.



Treatment of glossitis depends on the cause. If it is infection or disease, medication may be prescribed. Glossitis will usually respond well to treatment once the cause is determined. A doctor may issue dietary supplements if a nutritional deficiency is the cause. They may also advise of the dietary changes needed.



You can lower your risk of glossitis, but it is not always possible to fully prevent it. Things that can help keep it away are eating a healthy diet, brushing, flossing and rinsing your mouth and teeth at least twice a day and cutting out irritants such as spicy foods, acidic drinks and cigarettes.



A glossitis sufferer will usually make a full recovery over time with the right treatment. If the symptoms persist they will need to seek further medical attention. If the tongue is severely swollen and begins to block the airways, the person will require emergency medical attention as this could suggest a serious underlying condition.